Class notes for 02.08.12 (jigsaw ch 3 TbP)

Sarah Mabry pgs 40-44

Dysfuntion of the Theory-Practice Dichotomy
Teachers are researchers and are charged with the responsibility of reflecting on their own practice.
The relationship between the theorist and practitioner is similar to that of a producer of goods and a consumer.
An Enlightened, Eclectice Approach
Approach: rationale for language learning and teachingl includes a number of basic principles of learning and teaching on which you can rely on for designing and evaluating classroom lessons
Key to Dynamic Teaching = Interaction between your approach and your classroom practice
Key Points:
-The diversity of language learners in multiple worldwide contexts demands an eclectic blend of tasks which are tailored for a specified group of learners studying for particular purposes in geographic, social, and political contexts
*Our approaches to language teaching must always be designed for specific contexts of teaching.

Class notes for 02.08.12 (jigsaw ch 3 TbP)
Kim and Alyssa pgs 45-50
Communicative Language Teaching
  • Authenticity, acceptability, and adaptability
  • Task-based language teaching
  • In the 40’s and 50’s, teachers thought they could behaviorally program a linguistic structure into minds of learners through conditioning.
  • In the 60’s, grammar came into play in language
  • In the 70’s, experimental language teaching methods – focus on emotional and sociocultural factors within the learner
  • In the 80’s and 90’s, there were fundamentally communicative properties of language – incorporating meaningful language in your classroom
  • Nowadays classroom is focused on “real-life communication” and preparing the students to leave the classroom
  • See chart on pages 46-47 for CLT Approach
  • Some characteristics of CLT approach make it difficult for non-native speaking teachers to teach effectively, but this drawback shouldn’t stop them from pursuing communication in the classroom
  • In the last decade, English teachers worldwide have become more proficient, therefore improving their communication skills
  • This is also connected to audio-lingual methodology
  • Avoid overdoing certain features of CLT (don’t let it stop you from doing structured activities – grammar, vocab, etc.)
  • Effective application of CLT is a direct approach of teaching
  • CLT is an umbrella term, many different variations to it in practice
  • For example, cooperative teaching, whole language, and interactive teaching
Sarah Zaubi
Task Based Language Teaching (50-52)

A Task is an activity in which:
  • Meaning is primary
  • There is some communication problem to solve
  • There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities
  • Task completion has some priority
  • The assessment of the task is in terms of outcome

A task and a technique may be the same, but in other instances a task may also require or include several techniques.
Target Task: The ultimate end goal accomplished outside of the classroom
Pedagogical tasks: A series of techniques that, once mastered, help students achieve their target tasks.

The structure of TBLT learning usually points learners beyond language skills alone and to real-world contexts.

Tiffany Adams
Learner-Centered Instruction (52-53): refers to curricula and specific techniques. Learner Centered Instruction includes:
  • Techniques that focus on or account for learners' needs, styles, and goals
  • techniques that gives some control to the student (group work or strategy training, for example)
  • Curricula that includes the consultation and input of students and that do not presuppose objectives in advance
  • techniques that allow for student creativity and innovation
  • techniques that enhance a student's sense of competence and self-worth
This gives students choices and a sense of ownership to their own learning, thus giving them more motivation.

Cooperative Learning (53):
  • Not a competitive
  • involves learner-centered characteristics
  • Students work in pairs or groups and share information gathered to help one another.
  • Like a team.
  • Like collaborative learning but cooperative learning is more prescriptive to how a teacher teaches and more directive to students about how to work together (collaborative engages the learner by learning with people who know more for guidance and help).

Interactive Learning (53-54):
  • Emphasis is placed on speech and communication.
  • Focus is creating genuine interactions in the classroom.
  • Common activities in such a classroom are:
    • a significant amount of pair or group work
    • receiving authentic language input in real-world contexts
    • producing language for genuine, meaningful communications
    • Practicing oral communication through actual conversations
    • writing to and for real audiences, not contrived one
  • This is important in to the development of language for the more students interact with each other through written and oral communication, the better their communication skills become.

Whole Language Education (54-56)
  • encompasses cooperative learning, participatroy learning, student centered learning, focus on community of learners, focus on social nature of language, meaning centered language, holistic assessment of learning, integration of reading, writing, listening, and speaking
  • builds connections between everyday learning and school learning
  • use language to construct meaning through social practices
Content Based Instruction
  • integrates content and language learning together
  • teaching a subject is the first priority, learning the language is second
  • may require an extended period of time at the intermediate level
  • three models of CBI
-Theme Based: language is the primary aim but themes or points are used as a means of instruction -- -Sheltered: teacher of a particular school subject alters the material in order to help second language learners process the content
-Sustained Content Language and Teaching: focus on a single content area with a focus on second language learning as well