What do we call programs/services?
bilingual: Jennell

  • Bilingual programs in schools use English Language Learner's native languages to teach English until they are independent in English alone
  • The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 states that, "Under the act, English Language Learners must be kept in an adequate program until they can read, write, and comprehend English well enough to participate meaningfully in all aspects of the school's curriculum."


english only: Sarah Z
The English only program uses only the English language for instruction in the hopes that it will help ESL students be better able to make a quick transition to English.
The program has had mixed results, with some schools showing rapid improvement (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/03/26/MN197410.DTL#ixzz1kVNBqaWH) and others showing either marginal improvement or a regression (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/02/22/MNGSUHCJF51.DTL#ixzz1kVN1YS1q)

It aims to assimilate rather than diversify.
english plus: AlyssaThis program is to obtain a strong English language plus becoming more familiar with other languages.
Expanding educational opportunities for learning English and other languages.
Making America more diverse.

ESL : Sarah M
English language study program is for nonnative speakers. Typically class sizes are small so students receive individual attention. The goal of ESL is to improve the students level of the English language. All programs teach conversational English, grammar, reading, listening comprehension, writing, and vocabulary.

Pull out: Kim
  • Pulls students out of the “normal” classroom setting to focus on teaching ESL instruction
  • Preferred at elementary level
  • “Pull-out programs are the most expensive and least effective model of the ESL and bilingual education programs” (http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.hunemorder/pull-out_esl_)
Push In: Kim
  • ESL teacher comes into class during regular teaching times and works in hand with the classroom teacher
  • Difficult if the teacher doesn’t plan lesson in advance to give the ESL teacher
  • Requires collaborated teaching methods on both teachers parts

What do we call them?

ELL: Sarah M/www.school.elps.K12.mi.us/ell/what_is_ell.pdf

ELL stands for English Language Learning. All instruction is in English and teachers implement various techniques to make the content comprehensible. Students who take ELL classes are diverse and they are the fastest growing segment of the student population.
ESL: Sarah Z
ESL stands for English as a Second Language and applies to anyone who is not a native speaker of the English language and is attempting to learn it.

TESOL: AlyssaTeaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)
Unlike most programs, these students come from all over the world.
Over 70% of these students live in the US.
Outside the US there is a wide variety of these students in almost every country worldwide.

ENL: Alyssa

Bilingual: Jennell

Bilingual people are fluent in more than one language and use both languages regularly and interchangeably.Some still consider themselves bilingual if they are able to read or write or understand another language but can not do all three.

LEP: Sarah M
Individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English can be limited English proficient, or "LEP." These individuals may be entitled language assistance with respect to a particular type of service, benefit, or encounter.
LEPWhat is the status?Refugee Sarah Z
A refugee is a person recognized by the International Refugee Law as someone being in need of protective assylum; someone who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution or natural disaster.
While their are several laws protecting the basic human rights and needs of refugees (http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/refugee_en.pdf), "secondary rights" such as work and education are not considered standard support offered by most countries. For this reason, refugees are frequently stereotyped as a burden on a countries resources, but also a people with little to contribute.
Several organizations (such as the Peace Corps) seek to provide English education for refugees in the hope it will enable them to further pursue their rights and improve their lifestyles.

Immigrant Kim
  • This is for people who live permanently in the United States. Synonymous terms for immigrant status are: Permanent Resident, immigrant, green card holder, and resident alien. Gaining immigrant status can be a lengthy and complex process that requires close consulation with an immigration attorney. (http://internationaloffice.berkeley.edu/nonimmigrant_vs_immigrant

Assylum Seeker Sarah M
Assylum Seeker
An asylum-seeker is someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated.
National asylum systems are there to decide which asylum-seekers actually qualify for international protection. Those judged through proper procedures not to be refugees, nor to be in need of any other form of international protection can be sent back to their home countries.

Documented resident JennellUndocumented residentJennell
  • Documented residents are those who are living in the United States legally with proper forms of localization such as a Visa or green card
  • Undocumented residents do not have paperwork that can prove they are living in the United States legally

legal/illegal alien AlyssaAn illegal alien must go through the proess of receiving a green card.
Having a green card allows you to live and have a job in the US (legal alien).
Must have a green card for at least 5 years (living in the US) to become a citizen.